For most of its independent history, the country has faced substantial internal conflict that has weakened its ability to play a leadership role in the region. This includes two of the longest-lasting civil wars on the African continent, and conflicts in Darfur, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile. Under the terms of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, South Sudan seceded from Sudan in 2011 and became the 54th independent state of Africa.

The high incidence of conflict, particularly past fighting that led to South Sudan’s secession, has led to a large population of refugees and internally displaced persons. Sudan is now a source, destination, and transit country for irregular migration, including refugees and asylum-seekers using the East African North-bound migratory route through Libya to Europe.

The country hosts an estimated 800,000 South Sudanese refugees and 330,000 refugees and asylum seekers from Eritrea, Syria, Ethiopia, CAR, Chad, and Yemen.

Source: World Bank 2024

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